Date: 26 November, 2020
The federal judiciary works separately from the executive and legislative branches. The President passes federal laws and is responsible for signing them. The judicial branch chooses the constitutionality of federal laws and resolves other related disputes. However, the government’s executive branch’s decision is final and binding to the judiciary in the enforcement of court decisions.
Article III of the Constitution, gives the discretion to determine the shape and structure of the federal judiciary. Congress is also allowed to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court.
In the USA, the courts make a decision whether a person has committed a crime and he is liable for punishment or not. Courts provide for peaceful ways of settlement for disputes. Some cases fall under the jurisdiction of federal courts and some end up in state courts.
The highest court in the United States is the supreme court. Article III of the U.S. Constitution created the Supreme Court and authorized Congress to pass laws establishing a system of lower courts. In the federal court system’s present form, 94 district level trial courts and 13 courts of appeals sit below the Supreme Court.
COURT OF APPEALS
The U.S. Courts of Appeals are 13 appellate courts that sit below the U.S. Supreme Court. The appellate court determines whether the law was applied correctly in the trial court. Appeals courts do not use a jury. A court of appeals hears challenges to district court decisions from courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies.
U.S. District Courts resolve disputes by determining the facts and by application of
legal principles to give the judgment.
In the trial court, a jury decides the case which includes the district judge who tries the case. District judges are assisted by the magistrate judges in the same regard.
There are also two special trial courts. The Court of International Trade reports cases concerning international trade and customs laws. The U.S. Court of Federal Claims deals with most claims against the U.S. government for money damages.
In the US Federal courts have special jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases including personal, business, or farm bankruptcy. Thus, a bankruptcy case cannot be filed in state court. Through this process, individuals or businesses may either search for a court-supervised liquidation of their assets, or they may rearrange their financial affairs and work out a plan to pay their debts. However, this is only available to those who can’t repay their debts.
ARTICLE I COURTS
Article I courts were created by the congress, they do not have full judicial power i.e. the authority to be the final decider in matters relating to the constitutional law and federal law, claims at the core of habeas corpus issues.
The supreme law of the land in the United States is The U.S. Constitution, creating a federal system of government where power is shared between the federal government and the state governments. Due to the federal structure of the constitution, both the federal government and each of the state governments have their own court systems.